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A central term in the English-language discussion of the causes of wrongful convictions is "false forensic evidence". In this sense, scientifically based evidence can be false for various reasons: from the incorrect application of recognized scientific methods, to the application of methods that prove to be outdated in light of more recent (natural) scientific knowledge, to the application of methods that are, when viewed in the light of (natural) science, untenable from the outset ("junk science"), and to exaggerated and/or false representation by experts in expert reports. The so-called bite mark analysis is often cited as an example of methods whose reliability is not only unproven but highly dubious.

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